The Principles of CAO-ECE

(1)We have to study the hundreds of chant manuscripts first as witnesses of a musical life differentiated in time and space. In a logical sense it is only as a second step that they can be used as starting points from which to reach backwards to the initial "one form" (or several forms) of this heritage... See more
(2)The difficulty lies in the fact that the whole source material is almost exclusively a product of the third epoch and that this treasury preserved and integrated the heritage of the first and second periods too. Thus if we want to make a statement about any feature of the first or second epoch, we have to rely on arguments taken from the third one... See more
(3)How can we decide whether a given peculiarity is a function of the time or a local constituent existing perhaps simultaneously with the manuscript analysed, documented, however, only from centuries later? [...] Might it not be that the late sources preserve those traditions in the light of which the early traditions may be interpreted?... See more
(4)We may easily be a little bewildered, however, on being faced with the vast number and variety of sources, when we want to approach them without prejudice and with the intention of not excluding any groups of sources because of their age or origin.[...] It will, however, give us reassurance if we consider that, while the sources show only the face of the past that is turned in our direction, they reflect a life hidden behind them, and each source represents a particular tradition... See more
(5)What we want to achieve when we inquire into the 'provenance' of a given source is, in the last analysis, the identification and localization of the tradition influencing the source, at least with respect to the history of liturgy and plainchant. 'Provenance' means in this context the relationship between the above mentioned consuetudo and the source itself... See more
(6)...we have to establish a proper method by which we may define the liturgico-musical 'provenance' of the sources. We think that the concordance of many sources makes this possible... See more
(7)How can the above mentioned principles be adapted for practical implementation? The first task is to gather the greatest possible number of prospectively coherent sources that promise to be fruitful for typological analysis... See more
(8)...we have to start our work with a period - be it late or early - where we can safely draw up the outlines of a tradition from more than one source. It is only then that we may begin our journey back into history and ask whether this typology can throw light on other centuries too... See more
(9)The liturgy and its music are more than the sum of elements of equal rank. There are some 'strong' points in the organism of the tradition while others are of less importance, subject to changes. [...] The points characteristic of a given tradition appear at unforeseeable, seemingly capricious points. [...] There is only one principle of typology to be established beforehand, that the points of differentiation cannot be determined in advance... See more
(10)When trying to identify the various local traditions, we have to disregard the sources of the religious orders in the first stage of research...[...] It is less the Mass than the Office that has provided primary material for the distinction and comparison of local traditions. [...] The Pars Temporalis proves to be more expedient for carrying out primary analyses than the Pars Sanctoralis... See more
(11)[...] There exist, however, no sharp dividing lines between the practical decisions changing from time to time and the assignments after they have become fixed so as to form an organic part of the Office. Moreover, we know that the liturgical order - the mirror of the identity of the community - and the more flexible 'consuetudes' are completed by a third layer in the manuscripts which go back to different redactional decisions... See more
(12)The analysis of the sources may give rise to the emergence of a 'typical tradition', a kind of ideal state which is naturally not the same as the mixture of many sources. Hidden beneath this 'ideal' form you always find the best source or group of sources and, of course, the living tradition itself... See more

CAO-ECE Home | About | Practical Information | Publications | List of Sources | Traditions | Compare Tables | Search | Department of Early Music